How to Cite a PDF in MLA | Format & Examples

MLA doesn’t treat PDFs as their own source type. When you want to cite a PDF, you should determine what type of source it contains (e.g. a book or journal article) and cite it in the appropriate format.

If you feel it’s relevant, you may mention in your reference that the source was accessed as a PDF by adding “PDF file.” Note that you can write “PDF download” instead if you link to a page where the PDF can be downloaded (rather than directly to the PDF).

If you’re unsure about the source type, look for clues in the PDF (e.g. the name of the larger publication it comes from), or ask the instructor who provided you with it. This article gives examples of citations for several source types you might encounter in PDF form.

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Citing a book in PDF form

Extracts from books (or sometimes entire books) are commonly encountered as PDFs online. You can recognize them by the inclusion of a copyright page or title page.

To cite an online book like this, list the usual information for a book, followed by the name of the site where it was found and a URL or DOI.

MLA format Last name, First name. Book Title. Publisher, Year. Website/Database Name. DOI or URL. PDF file or PDF download.
MLA Works Cited entry Kosofsky Sedgwick, Eve. Touching Feeling: Affect, Pedagogy, Performativity. Duke University Press, 2003. Boston University. PDF file.
MLA in-text citation (Kosofsky Sedgwick 126)

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Citing a journal article

Journal articles usually indicate the volume, issue, and name of the journal. It’s best to include a DOI to provide a stable link to the article, but if no DOI is available, you can include the URL of the PDF instead.

MLA format Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Journal Name, vol. Volume, no. Issue, Month Year, pp. Pages, DOI or URL. PDF file or PDF download.
MLA Works Cited entry McCabe, David P., and Castel, Alan D. “Seeing Is Believing: The Effect of Brain Images on Judgements of Scientific Reasoning.” Cognition, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 343–352.
MLA in-text citation (McCabe and Castel 348)

Citing a newspaper or magazine article

A PDF scan of a print newspaper or magazine article will usually include the page numbers, which you can use in your citation, optionally including a link and specifying the PDF format if you think it’s relevant.

MLA format Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Magazine/Newspaper Name, Day Month Year, pp. Pages, URL, PDF file or PDF download.
MLA Works Cited entry Brodeur, Michael Andor. “Opera Is Taking Entirely New Forms. Its Survival May Depend on It.” The Washington Post, 7 Jan. 2021, pp. 14–15.
MLA in-text citation (Brodeur 14)

Citing a report

Reports are issued by organizations and governments. They sometimes have a report number and are often attributed to the organization rather than an individual author. If the organizational author is the same as the publisher, only include it once.

MLA format Last name, First name or Organization Name. Report Name. Publisher, Year. Report no. Number. URL, PDF file or PDF download.
MLA Works Cited entry Bedford, Denise A. D. Enterprise Information Architecture: An Overview. Washington State Department of Transportation, 2017. Report no. WA-RD 896.4., PDF file.
MLA in-text citation (Bedford 3)

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Frequently asked questions about MLA citations

How do I cite a source with no author or page numbers in MLA?

If a source has no author, start the MLA Works Cited entry with the source title. Use a shortened version of the title in your MLA in-text citation.

If a source has no page numbers, you can use an alternative locator (e.g. a chapter number, or a timestamp for a video or audio source) to identify the relevant passage in your in-text citation. If the source has no numbered divisions, cite only the author’s name (or the title).

If you already named the author or title in your sentence, and there is no locator available, you don’t need a parenthetical citation:

  • Rajaram argues that representations of migration are shaped by “cultural, political, and ideological interests.”
  • The homepage of The Correspondent describes it as “a movement for radically different news.”
How do I format a DOI in MLA style?

In MLA style citations, format a DOI as a link, including “” at the start and then the unique numerical code of the article.

DOIs are used mainly when citing journal articles in MLA.

What is the easiest way to create MLA citations?

The fastest and most accurate way to create MLA citations is by using Scribbr’s MLA Citation Generator.

Search by book title, page URL, or journal DOI to automatically generate flawless citations, or cite manually using the simple citation forms.

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If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, June 16). How to Cite a PDF in MLA | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved January 8, 2024, from

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Jack Caulfield

Jack is a Brit based in Amsterdam, with an MA in comparative literature. He writes for Scribbr about his specialist topics: grammar, linguistics, citations, and plagiarism. In his spare time, he reads a lot of books.